The Top 12 Solutions To Cut Poverty in the United States


Because the 1960s, America has made main strides in poverty discount, and but, there are nonetheless 35 million individuals dwelling in poverty in america. What’s extra, poverty can be twice as excessive if not for many years of serious investments by means of Social Safety, unemployment insurance coverage, vitamin help, and low-income tax credit, amongst different profitable anti-poverty applications. Nevertheless, the regarding actuality is that the COVID-19 pandemic and related financial fallout obliterated these positive factors, placing people and households at a larger danger of being pushed into poverty.

As of Might 2021, greater than 9 million People had been unemployed, 19 million adults and as much as Eight million youngsters had skilled meals insecurity, and greater than 10 million renters had been behind on rental funds. Communities of colour and different underserved households have been hit notably exhausting by the pandemic and subsequent financial downturn: Black, Indigenous, and Latinx communities have seen increased charges of an infection, hospitalization, and dying in addition to unemployment. Likewise, the incapacity group has been disproportionately affected by excessive charges of mortality at congregate amenities, inequitable vaccine rollouts, and delayed stimulus payouts to people on Social Safety and Supplemental Safety Revenue.

Navigating by means of the present disaster and rebuilding higher and stronger requires policymakers to take fast motion to supply equitable financial reduction to all. Equitable rebuilding not solely addresses systemic and institutional racism of previous coverage choices but additionally focuses on inclusive financial transformation that may strengthen the U.S. financial system and resilience in the long term. When the federal government invests in assembly peoples’ primary wants and financial safety by means of a sturdy security web and jobs that assist construct monetary safety, youngsters, households, and different weak populations see improved outcomes in each the quick and long run. The excellent news is that policymakers have already got a variety of instruments that may stop additional will increase in poverty and put all individuals on a pathway to financial mobility and resilience.

This column outlines 12 coverage options that Congress can use to chop poverty and increase financial safety for all in an equitable manner.

1. Increase security web applications to profit all in want

Security web applications will help individuals climate quite a lot of financial crises by assembly primary wants and offering stability. But the pandemic has uncovered simply how woefully insufficient America’s security web construction is.

For instance, earlier than the pandemic, state unemployment insurance coverage (UI) didn’t cowl month-to-month bills anyplace within the nation and excluded tens of millions of others resulting from their work classification, earlier earnings, size of employment, or immigration standing.

The Coronavirus Help, Aid and Financial Safety (CARES) Act offered a short lived $600 weekly increase to UI, lifting tens of millions out of poverty earlier than that provision was allowed to run out on the finish of July 2020. The American Rescue Plan continued a $300 weekly complement to UI that began in December 2020, offering an earnings to tens of millions of long-term unemployed and self-employed employees, impartial contractors, gig employees, and others. Sadly, this complement and the opposite momentary federal UI expansions are set to run out nationally on September 6, 2021. To make issues worse, not less than 26 governors have pledged to finish some or all of those applications even sooner, reducing advantages for 4.7 million individuals and severely affecting their potential to get better from the pandemic.

Equally, applications such because the Supplemental Diet Help Program (SNAP), supposed for these with the bottom incomes, haven’t performed sufficient to forestall starvation and meals insecurity in America. Even earlier than COVID-19 hit, the insufficient profit quantities pressured 45 p.c of SNAP recipients to restrict the meals they ate or skip meals simply to make it by means of the month; and practically a 3rd of SNAP recipients needed to go to a meals pantry to maintain themselves fed. From December 2019 to December 2020, the demand for charitable meals help rose by practically 50 p.c. This was particularly prevalent for households of colour, households with youngsters, and folks with disabilities. Fortuitously, the American Rescue Plan contained important expansions in meals help applications to assist mitigate the excessive ranges of starvation seen all through the disaster. However extra should be performed. Lawmakers should develop eligibility for SNAP, making certain that presently excluded teams—together with undocumented immigrants and plenty of school college students—are capable of obtain essential meals help. Burdensome work necessities that solely serve to push individuals away from help, somewhat than encourage work, must also be eradicated.

Short-term expansions of the security web aren’t sufficient to assist the tens of millions of People who’re nonetheless battling the financial and well being fallout from the pandemic. Congress should proceed to spend money on and modernize security web applications, making certain that profit ranges are expanded and extra accessible than they had been earlier than the disaster. It must also contemplate implementing computerized triggers that will develop advantages throughout future financial shocks, comparable to recessions, with out the necessity for legislative intervention. Not solely would this stop individuals from falling into poverty whereas Congress argues over how a lot reduction is critical, having a system that mechanically triggers expanded advantages would additionally assist soften the blow of future recessions and stimulate the financial system by giving cash to individuals who desperately want it in a well timed style.

2. Create good-paying jobs that meet household wants

Rebuilding the financial system in an equitable manner requires the creation of tens of millions of recent, good-paying jobs in key industries, with important employee protections to ease the burden on working households. Earlier than the pandemic shut down a lot of the nation, unemployment stood at 3.5 p.c, however by April 2020, unemployment had risen to nearly 15 p.c. A yr later, hiring is on an upward trajectory, however unemployment is at 5.Eight p.c, which continues to be significantly increased than pre-pandemic numbers.

Whereas the uptick in employment is an efficient signal, the identical individuals who struggled earlier than the disaster are nonetheless being left behind: The unemployment charges for Black and Hispanic people stand at 9.1 p.c and seven.Three p.c, respectively, in contrast with a 5.1 p.c unemployment fee for white individuals. Equally, the incapacity group continues to expertise issue regaining employment, with 10.2 p.c remaining unemployed as of Might 2021. It’s not the primary time these communities have seen giant unemployment gaps in contrast with their white and nondisabled friends, as such gaps had been persistently current even within the months main as much as the pandemic, when unemployment was low.

Girls have notably borne the brunt of job loss as a result of they’re overrepresented within the hardest-hit service sector jobs. From February 2020 to Might 2021, ladies misplaced a web of 4.2 million jobs. Moreover, since April 2020, the labor pressure participation fee for girls has hovered between 54.6 and 56.2 p.c—the bottom noticed fee because the late 1980s.

Though pandemic-related stimulus packages have helped bolster the financial system, labor market progress is sluggish, as many People are nonetheless unable to come back again to work resulting from caregiving challenges or are taking extra time to search out secure and first rate jobs that help their primary wants.

Creating the roles wanted to construct an equitable U.S. financial system requires federal funding. The American Jobs Plan is centered on investing $2.Three trillion to create new jobs by rebuilding roads and bridges, making a inexperienced power financial system, increasing important jobs within the caregiving sector, supporting home manufacturing, and making certain that these jobs present first rate wages and advantages and are accessible to People from all walks of life. If handed, the American Jobs Plan may reform and rebuild the financial system by considerably shrinking the hole of seven.6 million jobs misplaced since February 2020 and by permitting individuals to construct monetary safety and save for the long run.

3. Increase the minimal wage to make sure financial stability for all

It’s time for Congress to boost the federal minimal wage to meaningfully enhance dwelling requirements for tens of millions of People. At the moment’s federal minimal wage is simply $7.25 per hour, which is about $15,000 yearly for a full-time job. It has not been raised in additional than a decade and isn’t sufficient to maintain a one-adult, one-child family out of poverty. This isn’t how the minimal wage was supposed to work: Within the late 1960s, a full-time employee earned $1.60 per hour at minimal wage, which is equal to greater than $12 per hour in right this moment’s {dollars}.

There are additionally many employees who earn lower than minimal wage, or a “subminimum wage.” Tipped employees are solely assured a subminimum wage of $2.13 federally, regardless of proof from states demonstrating that ending the subminimum wage nationwide would considerably lower poverty and inequality with out hurting employment.

Subminimum wages are additionally a difficulty for disabled employees. In 1938, the Honest Labor Requirements Act licensed employers, after receiving a certificates from the Wage and Hour Division, to pay under minimal wages to employees with disabilities. Employees who fall beneath this classification are paid an estimated common of $2.15 per hour. That is simply one of many many explanation why in 2019, not less than 1 in Four disabled individuals lived beneath the poverty line.

The Increase the Wage Act would regularly carry the federal minimal wage to $15 per hour by 2025 and index it to median wage progress thereafter in order that the minimal wage would mechanically improve when wages rise nationally. The invoice would additionally part out the subminimum wage for tipped workers, youngsters employed for 90 days or much less, and disabled employees. These modifications would carry as much as 3.7 million People out of poverty and particularly profit individuals of colour, ladies, and folks with disabilities, who’re disproportionately represented in low-wage jobs.

4. Present everlasting paid household and medical go away and paid sick days

The US is the one industrialized nation on the earth to not assure employees entry to any paid go away. As of March 2020, an estimated 25 p.c of personal sector employees—and 69 p.c of employees incomes lower than $11 per hour—didn’t have entry to a single paid sick day. Moreover, in 2020, Four in 5 personal sector employees lacked entry to any paid household go away for longer-term household caregiving wants; and the disparity was worse among the many lowest-wage employees, the place 95 p.c didn’t have entry to paid day without work.

This places employees within the not possible place of getting to forgo wanted earnings, and even their job, to get better from an sickness or take care of a sick member of the family. Yearly, employees and their households lose an estimated $22.5 billion in wages resulting from an absence of entry to paid household and medical go away. Whereas Congress addressed this want in the course of the pandemic by offering momentary emergency paid sick go away and emergency paid baby care go away by means of the Households First Coronavirus Response Act, loopholes and exemptions excluded tens of millions of employees. This system additionally turned voluntary in 2021, that means employers can now refuse to supply paid go away once more.

Congress should prioritize passing paid sick go away and everlasting paid household and medical go away, notably to help the lowest-income earners. A number of proposals—together with the American Households Plan, the Household and Medical Insurance coverage Depart (FAMILY) Act, and the Wholesome Households Act—have been launched to deal with this difficulty. They embrace complete paid household and medical go away, permitting employees to take day without work work to get better from a well being situation, care for a kid or cherished one, or grieve the lack of a cherished one.

5. Improve employee energy to rebalance the labor market

Union illustration is a key safety towards the exploitation of and discrimination towards employees. Unions assist their members to barter with employers for first rate wages and advantages and to make sure that working individuals have a voice in U.S. democracy by selling progressive priorities, together with state and native minimal wage will increase. Analysis exhibits that unions improve employees’ wages and advantages, increase financial mobility in future generations, lower poverty, enhance employees’ basic well-being, and shut gender and racial wage and wealth gaps. Within the midst of mass layoffs as states shut down final yr, unions had been capable of negotiate furlough and work-share preparations with employers to assist members hold their jobs. But in 2020, solely 12 p.c of important employees had been lined by a union contract, and employees looking for to unionize face an uphill battle.

Passing the Defending the Proper to Arrange (PRO) Act would improve employee energy by creating new penalties for employers who retaliate towards employees attempting to prepare, banning pressured arbitration agreements that stop employees from pursuing collective litigation, adopting a brand new set of employer tips to forestall workers from being misclassified as impartial contractors, and making certain that employees can discount within the fashionable financial system. As well as, the Public Service Freedom to Negotiate Act would supply important protections for tens of millions of public sector employees to prepare and discount collectively. By making certain that employers are accountable to their employees in the course of the pandemic, they’ll share the advantages of restoration because the financial system opens again up.

Moreover, policymakers should construct employee protections into at-will employment and just-in-time scheduling to make sure truthful labor and office requirements.

6. Make everlasting will increase to the kid tax credit score and earned earnings tax credit score

Two of the nation’s best anti-poverty instruments, the kid tax credit score (CTC) and earned earnings tax credit score (EITC), lifted 7.5 million People out of poverty in 2019.

Each applications present a dependable supply of earnings to oldsters, serving to them meet fast wants and plan for the long run whereas making them extra financially steady on a day-to-day foundation. These applications additionally pay long-term dividends by enhancing toddler and maternal well being outcomes whereas boosting the tutorial, well being, and earnings potential of future generations.

The American Rescue Plan Act was capable of shut some evident holes inside the tax credit by:

  • Making the CTC absolutely refundable so low-income dad and mom can get the total credit score if their tax legal responsibility is lower than their credit score quantity by paying them the distinction
  • Rising the quantity of the CTC to $3,600 for kids beneath 6 and $3,000 for kids ages 6 to 17
  • Distributing the CTC month-to-month as an alternative of at tax time
  • Almost tripling the utmost EITC for employees who aren’t elevating youngsters of their residence
  • Revising the eligibility necessities to make EITC accessible to employees ages 19 to 24, in addition to employees who’re 65 and older
  • Extending the credit or offering supplemental funding to Puerto Rico and different U.S. territories

Nevertheless, these modifications are momentary and can expire in 2022. Contemplating that the modifications to the CTC alone had been estimated to carry practically Four million youngsters out of poverty, the easiest way to make sure that these credit proceed to help low-wage employees and households with youngsters is to make them everlasting. Policymakers should additionally make the CTC as accessible as attainable by eradicating boundaries for immigrant households.

7. Assist pay fairness to create a good labor market

Equal pay ensures that employees are paid pretty. In 2019, ladies working full time, year-round earned simply 82 cents for each $1 earned by their male counterparts. This pay hole is even worse for girls of colour: For each greenback earned by white, non-Hispanic males in 2019, Black ladies earned 63 cents, Native ladies earned 60 cents, and Latinas earned 55 cents. And whereas Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) ladies, on common, earned 85 p.c of what white, non-Hispanic males earned, there have been a lot wider gaps for a lot of AAPI sub-populations. Disabled ladies additionally battle with a pay hole, receiving 80 cents for each greenback earned by males with disabilities. If ladies on this nation obtained equal pay to males, poverty for working ladies can be diminished by half and $512.6 billion can be added to the financial system by means of extra wages.

What’s extra, equal pay is crucial to serving to employees attain the steadiness and financial savings essential to climate present and future crises. The pandemic has stalled ladies’s financial progress, as an absence of entry to baby care and paid go away, coupled with mass job losses, has pressured many ladies out of the workforce totally, exacerbating the gender wage hole. For instance, moms of younger youngsters have misplaced jobs at thrice the speed of fathers in the course of the disaster. That is on high of ever-present compounding components comparable to bias and discrimination that will deflate ladies’s earnings.

Passing the Paycheck Equity Act would improve present equal pay protections, additional fight discriminatory practices, and higher maintain employers accountable for pay discrimination. Pandemic or not, securing equal pay has all the time been important to the financial safety of girls and households.

8. Spend money on inexpensive, high-quality baby care and early childhood schooling

Greater than half of all People dwell in a baby care desert, the place baby care shortages result in ready lists, job disruptions, and fewer moms within the paid labor pressure. Little one care in america is prohibitively costly, with toddler and toddler care typically costing between $800 and $1,230 a month. Whereas there are subsidies for low-income households, in most states, they attain fewer than 1 in 10 eligible youngsters beneath the age of 6. In consequence, low-income households can spend greater than one-third of their earnings on baby care simply to have the ability to work.

Not surprisingly, the pandemic has eviscerated baby care throughout america. About 700,000 dad and mom left the workforce in 2020 to take care of younger youngsters who weren’t capable of go to high school or have entry to baby care. Since then, solely half of the practically 400,000 baby care jobs misplaced at the beginning of the pandemic have returned, resulting in a 144 p.c improve in the variety of dad and mom who’ve missed work to care for kids in contrast with 2019.

The $39 billion for sponsored baby care that was already included within the American Rescue Plan will assist suppliers get better from a yr of unprecedented income losses, however extra funding is required to develop these providers to everybody who wants them. The American Households Plan would make important investments in common preschool for 3- and 4-year-olds, which would assist extra struggling households acquire the kid care they should work, higher assembly their households’ primary wants and constructing future financial stability. The plan would additionally cap baby care prices for low- and moderate-income households at 7 p.c of their earnings, making it much more inexpensive and manageable as they juggle different wants.

One other invoice presently launched in Congress, the Little one Care for Working Households Act (CCWFA), would guarantee free or inexpensive baby care for 76 p.c of working households with youngsters beneath the age of 6, increasing high quality take care of tens of millions of households. As Congress deliberates future funding, it should spend money on inexpensive, high-quality baby care and early schooling, offering dad and mom with the means to foster household safety and wholesome baby improvement.

9. Increase entry to well being care

Because it was signed into regulation in 2010, the Inexpensive Care Act (ACA) has expanded entry to high-quality, inexpensive well being protection for tens of millions of People, particularly these with preexisting situations. At the moment, 31 million People are enrolled in protection by means of the ACA marketplaces or the regulation’s growth of Medicaid. Nevertheless, 12 states proceed to refuse to develop their Medicaid applications to cowl adults making as much as 138 p.c of the federal poverty guideline—inserting a heavy burden on households already on the brink. About 2.2 million uninsured persons are with out an inexpensive possibility for medical insurance as a result of they dwell in nonexpansion states and have incomes too low to qualify for market premium tax credit.

Increasing Medicaid would imply extra than simply entry to well being care; it might give individuals monetary safety from sudden medical prices and unencumber restricted family earnings for different primary wants comparable to paying lease and placing meals on the desk. Will increase in Medicaid enrollment are related to diminished charges of medical debt and different unpaid payments amongst low-income people. Research additionally hyperlink Medicaid protection to improved entry to well being care providers, larger monetary safety, decrease mortality charges, diminished racial well being care disparities, and decrease charges of eviction.

Whereas the American Rescue Plan included elevated federal Medicaid funding for 2 years as an incentive to encourage extra states to develop their applications, it’s unlikely that the remaining nonexpansion states will take up this feature. Congress has a possibility to enact federal insurance policies that guarantee individuals within the Medicaid protection hole can achieve entry to inexpensive, complete medical insurance.

10. Reform the felony justice system and enact insurance policies that help profitable reentry

Sturdy modifications are wanted to restructure and reform a U.S. felony justice system that incarcerates extra of its residents than another nation on the earth, holding about 2.Three million individuals in prisons, jails, and different correctional amenities. If not for the fast improve in mass incarceration since 1980, poverty charges would have dropped by 20 p.c by 2009. The impression on communities of colour is especially staggering: Black and Latino males are, respectively, 6 instances and a pair of.5 instances extra prone to be incarcerated than white males; and Black and Latina ladies are, respectively, 1.7 instances and 1.Three instances extra prone to be incarcerated than white ladies. Likewise, Native People are incarcerated at greater than twice the speed of white People.

Mass incarceration is a key trigger and consequence of poverty. When an individual is incarcerated, their household should discover a technique to make ends meet and not using a essential supply of earnings. Moreover, even a minor felony file or an arrest and not using a conviction can stop a person from getting a job, housing, or sure advantages, contributing to cycles of multigenerational poverty. Presently, there are greater than 44,000 authorized sanctions that create boundaries to housing for individuals with felony information. Furthermore, numerous restrictions prohibit justice-involved people’ entry to SNAP and Short-term Help for Needy Households (TANF) advantages if they’ve prior felony drug convictions, until extra necessities are fulfilled. This may embrace being required to attend for months after completion of a sentence to be thought-about eligible or to take part in obligatory periodic drug testing, each of that are pointless obstacles that hinder profitable reentry.

Sentencing reform is crucial to addressing mass incarceration. Policymakers must also implement clear slate legal guidelines, which assist develop entry to automated felony file clearing, and discover options to incarceration, comparable to diversion applications for people with psychological well being and substance abuse challenges. Moreover, it’s important to assessment the position of policing in public security, well being, and well-being. There was a current transfer throughout the nation to divert away from police sure well being, public security, and group care emergency responses and funds—comparable to responding to individuals experiencing a psychological well being disaster—that higher match businesses and social employees. Obstacles to employment, housing, schooling, and public help should even be eliminated. A decades-old felony file shouldn’t consign a person to a lifetime of poverty.

11. Spend money on inexpensive, accessible housing

One in Four renter households in america is extraordinarily low earnings, and half of renters are reasonably or severely cost-burdened, that means that they pay greater than a 3rd to half of their earnings on lease and utilities.

Total, Native American, Black, and Latinx renters usually tend to be extraordinarily low earnings. A protracted historical past of racially focused insurance policies has worsened housing safety for individuals of colour, who’re extra cost-burdened and face extra discrimination in acquiring and sustaining housing. Going through and experiencing eviction, which additionally disproportionately impacts communities of colour—and Black ladies specifically—can result in unfavourable psychological and bodily well being outcomes, issue acquiring future housing, and exacerbated monetary hardship, all of which may gasoline cycles of multigenerational poverty.

Disparities have endured in the course of the pandemic, as renters of colour and disabled renters report increased charges of housing insecurity. These and different measures of housing insecurity contribute to the continuing homelessness crises and proceed to place probably the most weak group members in danger. Charges of homelessness, and notably persistent homelessness, are on the rise. The 2020 point-in-time depend carried out by the U.S. Division of Housing and City Growth estimated that greater than 580,000 individuals expertise homelessness on any given evening, a quantity that’s possible an unlimited undercount. Strikingly, of these experiencing homelessness, practically 25 p.c are individuals with disabilities.

Investments in everlasting housing applications, comparable to Housing First and a nationwide Properties Assure, must be supported to supply a path for individuals experiencing homelessness or dwelling in transitional housing to acquire and keep long-term, steady housing, whereas additionally addressing the scarcity of greater than 7 million inexpensive housing models.

Policymakers must also improve renter protections by guaranteeing a proper to counsel, investing in tenant-landlord mediation, regulating the usage of background checks in rental housing purposes, and making the Housing Selection Voucher and rental help applications an entitlement that doesn’t sundown. Moreover, policymakers ought to prohibit source-of-income discrimination, which creates boundaries to acquiring rental housing for households that obtain housing vouchers. To additional stop housing discrimination and construct extra inclusive communities, the disparate impression rule beneath the Honest Housing Act must be reinstated alongside the revised Affirmatively Furthering Honest Housing rule, which is presently set to enter impact on the finish of July.

12. Modernize the Supplemental Safety Insurance coverage program

Supplemental Safety Insurance coverage (SSI) is a necessary anti-poverty program for the incapacity group, offering month-to-month money help for these with little or no earnings and belongings. Almost Eight million individuals obtained advantages in Might 2021, and in 2019, 57 p.c of recipients reported SSI being their sole supply of earnings. Nevertheless, little has been performed to take care of this program, leaving tens of millions of disabled individuals farther and farther behind.

Quite a few coverage changes may replace SSI and assist pull the incapacity group out of poverty. Elevating the minimal profit to not less than the poverty stage is a good first step. In 2021, the utmost profit for people was raised to $794 per 30 days, which is properly under the federal poverty guideline of $1,073 per 30 days. Asset limits additionally must be elevated, as they haven’t been up to date since 1989. Presently, people and {couples} are allowed limits of $2,000 and $3,000, respectively, in belongings, comparable to cash in joint or private financial institution accounts, investments in shares or bonds, and life insurance coverage insurance policies with a complete face worth of greater than $1,500. Asset limits have turn into lethal poverty traps, notably in instances of catastrophe such because the pandemic, as they stop recipients from having the ability to save, forcing them into financial precarity. Different rule modifications, together with the elimination of penalties for in-kind help from household and buddies and an replace to earnings disregards that haven’t been modified because the program started in 1974 would go a great distance towards making certain that this program stays a powerful security web for disabled adults and youngsters.

The continued disinvestment in SSI has basically diminished its efficacy, placing disabled individuals on the point of poverty and destitution. Prioritizing the financial safety of such marginalized communities helps make sure the safety of all communities. Congress should act now to assist the incapacity group not solely climate the pandemic but additionally construct a steady monetary future.

Conclusion

It’s attainable for America to dramatically minimize poverty. From 1959 to 1973, a powerful financial system, together with investments in household financial safety, helped minimize the U.S. poverty fee in half. Investments in vitamin help have resulted in enhancements in instructional attainment, meals insecurity, and well being outcomes. Expansions of public medical insurance have contributed to decrease toddler mortality charges and higher total well being and well being care entry for kids at a diminished out-of-pocket value. Rental help applications have been proven to lower stress, eviction, and homelessness amongst low-income renters. And expansions in tax credit for poor households have helped increase incomes for the subsequent era, on high of enhancing instructional and well being outcomes.

Poverty is preventable. America has the facility and skill to make sure that all individuals residing inside its borders can construct monetary stability and dwell their lives with dignity. The coverage priorities detailed above are important for stopping poverty and selling financial alternative for all. As a nation, we merely must construct the political will to enact these intersectional insurance policies so that each one residents can attain their American dream.

Arohi Pathak is the director of coverage for the Poverty to Prosperity Program on the Middle for American Progress. Kyle Ross is a particular assistant for the Poverty to Prosperity Program on the Middle.

The authors want to thank Lily Roberts, Mara Pellittieri, Mia Ives-Rublee, Jaboa Lake, Areeba Haider, Justin Schweitzer, Seth Hanlon, Diana Boesch, Robin Bleiweis, Karla Walter, Laura McSorley, Rasheed Malik, Emily Gee, and CAP’s Editorial crew for his or her contributions.





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